P-Q^{2} analysis is a standard procedure used to optimally match the target gate velocity to the capabilities of the HPDC (High Performance Die Casting) machine’s plunger hydraulic system. Desired fill time and an optimum gate design can be attained by performing P-Q^{2} analysis, which in turn, maximizes the efficiency of the HPDC system.

Physics

The theoretical basis of the P-Q^{2} analysis is the conservation of energy for steady incompressible flow. According to Bernoulli's equation, the metal pressure at the gate is proportional to the flow rate squared:

The assumptions for this analysis are:

- Constant discharge coefficient
- Liquid metal has reached the gate
- No air in metal stream at the gate
- No solidification during the filling
- Runner is the main resistance in the flow

Figure 1. Plot showing the operational window

Setting up P-Q^{2} analysis

To perform P-Q^{2} analysis, the *Geometry* Type of the piston must be defined as *Plunger.* This can be done when you add the piston to your geometry (*Geometry -> Add geometry*).

Figure 2. *Geometry *tab

Enable P-Q^{2} analysis by selecting the *Perform PQ^2 analysis* option in the *Details* tab of the component, *Piston *(Figure 2). Enter the machine parameters (Figure 3) to define the machine performance line.

Figure 3. Defining machine parameters

During the design stage, the user specified process parameters may not be optimal, for instance, the resulting pressure is beyond the machine capability. If so, toggle on the *Adjust velocity* option for the piston velocity to be automatically adjusted to match the machine capability. Now, the flow rate will be adjusted at each time step if the pressure at the piston head is beyond the machine capability. Once the pressure drops below the machine performance line, the piston will then accelerate towards the prescribed velocity.

Viewing or Post-Processing The P-Q^{2} diagram

The P-Q^{2} analysis data such as *pq2* *pressure*, and *pq2 flow rate*, are written out in the *History Data*. They can be accessed in FlowSight by pressing the *History data* button. In the *History Data* dialog, select *Piston: pq2 diagram* in the variable list and press the *New plot* button to create a plot of the P-Q^{2} diagram:

Figure 4. History data* *and the P-Q^{2} diagram

The P-Q^{2} diagram above indicates that adjustment may be needed to bring the pressure down below the machine performance line. You can either toggle on the *Adjust velocity* option and retry (see Figure 5), or modify your machine parameters.

Figure 5. Adjusted *pq2 diagram*

Conclusion

Labels: die resistance line, FLOW-3D Cast v4.1, FlowSight, HPDC, machine performance line, operating window, optimum gate design, PQ2 analysis, software development